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Ethanol combustion in an internal combustion engine yields many of the products of incomplete combustion produced by gasoline and significantly larger amounts of formaldehyde and related species such as acetaldehyde.
When this is added into the custom Localised Pollution Index (LPI) of The Clean Fuels Report, the local pollution of ethanol (pollution that contributes to smog) is rated 1.7, where gasoline is 1.0 and higher numbers signify greater pollution.
(an ethyl group linked to a hydroxyl group), and is often abbreviated as Et OH.
Ethanol is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a slight characteristic odor.
The California Air Resources Board formalized this issue in 2008 by recognizing control standards for formaldehydes as an emissions control group, much like the conventional NOx and Reactive Organic Gases (ROGs).
The Oxford English Dictionary claims that it is a medieval loan from Arabic al-kuḥl, a powdered ore of antimony used since antiquity as a cosmetic, and retained that meaning in Middle Latin.
Brazilian ethanol is produced from sugar cane and noted for high carbon sequestration.
Australian law limits the use of pure ethanol from sugarcane waste to 10% in automobiles.
The use of “alcohol” for ethanol (in full, “alcohol of wine”) is modern, first recorded 1753, and by the later 17th century referred to “any sublimated substance; distilled spirit” use for “the spirit of wine” (shortened from a full expression alcohol of wine). Ethanol is used in medical wipes and most common antibacterial hand sanitizer gels as an antiseptic.
Ethanol kills organisms by denaturing their proteins and dissolving their lipids and is effective against most bacteria and fungi, and many viruses.
Ethanol was commonly used as fuel in early bipropellant rocket (liquid propelled) vehicles, in conjunction with an oxidizer such as liquid oxygen.